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Differences of Smoke Density Test between ISO 5659 and ASTM E662

Feb 17, 2017 at 16:53
Smoke is one of the most risky factors of fire to cause death. Researchers usually use smoke density to measure the smoke amount of material during the combustion. The more smoke burning materials released, the higher smoke density index of the materials are. It is also worse for people evacuation and fire extinguishing in the fire scene.

Differences of Smoke Density Test between ISO 5659 and ASTM E662

There are a large number of materials for buildings, trains, ships, or other fire safety engineering industries need to determine the specific optical density of smoke generated by these solid materials. The most widely used method to measure such performances is the single chamber test from ISO 5659-2 Plastics Smoke generation Part 2 Determination of optical density by a single-chamber test and ASTM E662 Standard test method for specific optical density of smoke generated by solid materials.

The tested specimen are mounted within a certain volume chamber and exposed to fire or specific thermal radiation. The smoke evolved is collected in the chamber or the attenuation of a light beam passing through the smoke is measured. The specific optical density and mass optical density or heat loss will be used to reflect the smoke density index.

The NBS smoke density chamber and photometric equipment are almost the same for ISO 5659-2 and ASTM E662. But they have many differences on heating, specimen holding, procedure, etc. You can find the detailed differences in the form below. 

Differences of Smoke Density Test between ISO 5659 and ASTM E662

Standard ISO 5659-2 ASTM E662
Radiator Power 2600W -
Heat flux 10kW/m2 to 50 kW/m2 25kW/m2
Measure position 25mm under specimen Φ38mm front of the specimen
Measure area of radiator Φ10mm Φ38mm
Distance from furnace 25mm 38mm
Burner Type Single Six
Flame height (30±5)mm Isometric small fires
Distance to specimen 10mm (6.4±0.6)mm
Specimen Size 59mm×59mm 65mm×65mm
Thickness Less than 25mm Less than 25mm
Orientation Horizontal Vertical
Test procedure Specimen process 23±2℃, 50% to constant weight 60±3℃ for 24h, then 23±2℃, 50% to constant weight
Modes 25 kW/m2 without fire
25 kW/m2 with fire
50 kW/m2 without fire
50 kW/m2 with fire
25 kW/m2 without fire
25 kW/m2 with fire
Time 10min or minimum light transmittance value Minimum light transmittance value or another 3min when no minimum light transmittance value after 20 min test

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